Name: Tiago de Oliveira Carvalho
Type: MSc dissertation
Publication date: 23/09/2020

Namesort descending Role
Thana Mara de Souza Advisor *

Examining board:

Namesort descending Role
André Constantino Yazbek External Examiner *
Renato dos Santos Belo External Examiner *
Thana Mara de Souza Advisor *

Summary: This dissertation intends to show how Sartre’s phenomenology achieves a concrete ontological description of human experience. In others words, the analysis of the main existentialism notions is carried out in Being and nothingness in order to demonstrate that Sartre’s description cannot be equated with metaphysical discourses. Firstly, it aims to understand how the philosopher organizes his description based on the finding of the factual union between consciousness and the world in such a way that it becomes possible to describe both the structures of being that are involved in the verified relationship and the way by which these ontological structures are linked. Secondly, affirming the concrete character of such a description makes it possible to argue in favor
of the concreteness of the ambiguous relationship between freedom and situation by explaining how the description of human reality takes into account its historicity. In the meantime, it is argued that the ambiguity of the freedom/situation relationship gives rise to an understanding of historical alienation’s problem that overcomes the antagonistic impasse between freedom and determination. Finally, the essay Materialism and Revolution is analyzed in order to understand how Sartre structures a paradoxical understanding of the historical agent by defining him as a free and alienated being.
Keywords: Sartre. Determination. Freedom. Phenomenology. Ontology.

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